Years of Instructional Design – What does it mean for Moodle?

Pyramid diagram of the hierarchy of instructional design

License Some rights reserved by jrhode

As an Online Learning Designer, it is something I am very passionate about and spend much time researching and reading about broadly, and that is instructional design (ID).聽 I have always loved a good model and when I start researching ID models I’m in heaven 馃檪 This post may turn into a series of posts as I have read widely and have much to reflect on.聽 However, I read a great article the other night that whilst referencing some old research and ID models, was also addressing newer research into serious game design.聽 It was a very enlightening article for me and gave me much to think about.聽 The article is not extremely current but when compared with some of the ID models referenced it is very recent.

Gunter, G. A., Kenny, R. F.,聽 and Vick, E. H. (2006). A case for a formal design paradigm for serious games, The Journal of the International Digital Media and Arts Association, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 93-105.

Whilst the opening sentence of the article didn’t have me hooked, I kept reading and what I learned and came to reflect on was a rich history of ID models that can still to this day inform the design and development of current online learning experiences.聽 The opening line says: “Serious games have become an educational trend.” (p. 93) and that may be true, however, gaming is not just a trend but a way of learning, communicating and interacting with information.聽 It’s not new either, because gaming has been around for centuries in many forms, its shape and design just changing with the times.聽 Game design is therefore not new but is being more readily adopted by educators as a very effective way of motivating and engaging students in learning experiences.

Gunter et al. (2006) discussed and unpacked serious game design and along the way they reference the work of:

  • Robert Gagne (1985)
  • James Keller (1983), and
  • Benjamin Bloom (1956)

Before I get into how they referenced these models and related them to serious game design, I want to share what Gunter et al. (2006) outlined as the elements of serious game design:

  1. Scenario exposition
  2. Problem Setup
  3. Offer Challenge/Choice
  4. Provide Direction
  5. Elicit Action/Decision
  6. Discernable Outcomes
  7. Success/Failure Screens (p. 104)
Black background with instructional design mind map on top

License Some rights reserved by Rich_James

They then explore these and how the three psychologists’ models mentioned above can be applied and used to structure serious game design as well.聽 I might do separate posts for each of these and how they relate to serious game design but how can these serious game design elements listed above be integrated into a Moodle course as is?

1. Scenario Exposition – Outline the unit of work and its intended outcomes, providing an entry point for the learning experience.
2. Problem Setup – Explain the importance of the topic/concept being studied and demonstrate need for more knowledge and skill acquisition in this area.
3. Offer Challenge/Choice – This could be a Moodle activity that gets students to explore new content e.g. challenge students to create a wiki page that outlines new topic, engage students in a lesson activity with pathways that vary dependent on their answers to a series of questions or even just give them the choice to explore in-depth, one of many resources provided and produce a reflection for group.
4. Provide direction – This is so very easy in Moodle in so many ways.聽 The many various types of Moodle course formats can help scaffold learning experiences and the navigation of these experiences.聽 I personally love the book module and whilst it appears very linear in the table of contents, students could still go through sections in their own preferred order whilst still having direction provided.
5. Elicit Action/Decision – This could be getting a student to submit a task.聽 Students can submit work in many forms within Moodle, from submitting a discussion forum topic post to submitting a file through assignments, to submitting a page in a wiki and personal reflections in a blog.聽 I love all the Moodle activities and there is so much students can do with them when educators are creative about their use.聽 This step to me is about getting students to do something with what they have learned and Moodle definitely provides that opportunity.
6. Discernable Outcomes – Make sure that the above activity gives students the chance to demonstrate outcomes intended for achievement.
7. Success/Failure Screens – Moodle activities are also able to be automatically graded (many of but not all) and this can be a very effective and easy way to gain results and feedback on the successes and failures of students.聽 Get students to do a quiz, or fill in a feedback/questionnaire activity.
This is only a brief reflection on the bare bones of the article but stay tuned for further posts on this topic.

TeachMeeting it up!

I just had my first experience of a TeachMeet and I jumped right in and presented too… it was a fantastic experience!!! My brain is fairly bursting with ideas I thought I better blog 馃檪

Matt started us off and talked strategic planning and infrastructure for developing staff at school in ICT.聽 I love to hear of the approach different people take to this.

Remembering CLAS for DET teachers ICT skills. #tmplane
Wed, Sep 26 2012 02:23:21

I’ve worked with Karran before and her work in the South West Sydney region for the DER is inspiring many teachers.聽 I have always believed that students are as much teachers as we are and to see such a project empowering our students warms my heart.聽 Students need to feel valued and like they bring something to the table when it comes to their education.聽 This project provides so much opportunities for students and I hope the vision continues to grow.

@MsWillisum talking about student centered learning with technology, partnered with volunteering #tmplane
Wed, Sep 26 2012 02:21:29
Karran Williamson talking about Student Technology LeaDERs. #TMplane #planePL
Wed, Sep 26 2012 02:25:12
DOM Dump, Organise and Modelmap. technique taught to Student Action Groups by Karran Williamson #TMplane
Wed, Sep 26 2012 02:26:49
Great idea from Karran Williamson on Student Action Groups. Students leading technology use in learning. #TMplane

Now did this presentation get the brain bursting!! The chat in Adobe connect went nuts with the enthusiasm that ensued.聽 Augmented reality is a relatively new player to the technology world but its hitting all the sweet spots!聽 What John presented inspired me and so many others.聽 I see the potential for teachers to create OH & S and safety experiences to use in TAS and Science classrooms for students to get a firsthand look at the potential dangers they need to be careful of in practical lessons.聽 Others in the TeachMeet thought of things like interactive art shows at school and an interactive newsletter.聽 I won’t to take the tool presented, Aurasma, and use it in PLANE to create interactive resources now so watch out world 馃檪聽 (I could stay up and start work now but may not make it to work then lol)

John Clear from the AIS talking about augmented reality application in everyday situations #tmplane
Wed, Sep 26 2012 02:48:52
John Clear from AIS talking about Aurasma. #TMplane #planePL
Wed, Sep 26 2012 02:51:06
John Clear talking about using Augmented Reality in teaching. Use Aurasma free app. #TMplane
Wed, Sep 26 2012 02:51:37

Finally, I presented on Moodle, a great passion of mine and it was so fun!聽 A lot of what I talked about is already amongst my blog posts so peruse them and you’ll get a sense of what I presented on.

Kristina Hollis, PLANE’s resident Moodle guru speaking about Moodle. #TMplane #planePL
Wed, Sep 26 2012 03:11:13
Moodle often used to replicate traditional teaching instead of using it to full potential #TMplane
Wed, Sep 26 2012 03:30:14

This was only my first experience of TeachMeets but now I’m hooked!! Will look forward to engaging with it again soon 馃檪

Riding the Wave – Part 4

  1. Julian Ridden, aka @moodleman, flew in today for MootAu12, and boy did he fly in. For those who have not sen Julian present you are missing out, he is funny, engaging, charismatic and very informative. However, and he did warn us….
  2. anitsirk17
    Warned about fast pace of @moodleman presentation now on migrating offline pedagogy into online classroom using Moodle #mootau12
  3. Below are some of my notes taken from Julian’s first presentation on migrating our pedagogy online. I found it very engaging and his quotes and thoughts were thought provoking.
  4. anitsirk17
    W don’t stop classroom discussion because students might say something so don’t stop online forums for the same reason #mootau12
  5. anitsirk17
    Learn from Facebook… It’s became huge with one single purpose… To connect people! #mootau12 @moodleman
  6. anitsirk17
    “The is no such thing as eLearning because learning already has an ‘e’ in it” @moodleman #mootau12
  7. anitsirk17
    “The key to using any tech effectively is underpinning it with the right pedagogy” @vnaryan @moodleman #mootau12
  8. Here’s what some others thought too….
  9. marlenemanto
    #mootau12 “Engagement first, knowledge second. Or you can’t disperse the knowledge effectively. ” Thx @moodleman
  10. flairandsquare
    Facebook purpose to connect people, is now the third largest country in the world, why aren’t we learning from that? @moodleman #mootau12
  11. His second presentation was on Mahara and Moodle together – Mahoodle as he put it. I’ve seen Mahara in development and a little in actin within a great professional development project just being initiated with NSW educators, in completely online courses and teach meets. Watch out for PLANE, they are going to be leading the way in online professional development soon.

    Here are some notes from Julian’s second presentation…

  12. anitsirk17
    Mahara belongs to the student, students decide on layout, target, and content… Feedback by student and teacher #moodleau12 @moodleman
  13. anitsirk17
    I’ve seen Moodle and Mahara working together and they are fantastic!! #moodleau12 #planepl
  14. anitsirk17
    Understand the difference between LMS, VLE, PLE and PLN. Moodle and Mahara cross over in VLE and PLE @moodleman #moodleau12
  15. I like what Julian had to show in the way the single sign on works and helps seamlessly combine both Mahara and Moodle with each other. They talk to each other and in so doing allow students are richer experience in portfolio management and the aggregate their own learning products into one single area. Another great benefit of Mahara and Moodle and the marriage of them to each other is that grading a Mahara item is as easy as grading a normal Moodle assignment (from what I was able to understand), which is fantastic! I am certainly going to look into this more and my institute may use it in the future, which would be exciting.

    Here’s what others thought….

  16. flairandsquare
    Very practical demo thanks @moodleman > how the Mahara Moodle portfolio integration works for the student. #mootau12
  17. marlenemanto
    #mootau12 “Don’t make Moodle a walled garden where students cannot get work out again.” Q from @moodleman
  18. Eellcie
    Mahara facilitates reflective practice, built in NZ, portfolios for students > student centered unlike a LMS #mootau12

Riding the Wave – Part 3

  1. Im going to blog/storify the talks a little more in real time today as there is so much to process and so little time later to reflect on the day.

    Keynotes were presented by Elizabeth Ellis from ABC Connect and Solua Middleton from ABC Open. Some great stuff being done by both of these groups.

  2. moodler
    #mootau12 Liz Ellis gets the whole crowd doing a Mexican wave as a metaphor for our learners working as a team.
  3. anitsirk17
    ABC Connect eLearning strategy Los at infrastructure, learning content, eLearning skills as well as hearts and minds #mootau12
  4. anitsirk17
    Image-driven, icon-driven and simple linear course structures… What do you find works in your context? #mootau12
  5. Eellcie
    There is a sense that if “you build it they will come” but we know that’s not enough don’t we #mootau12
  6. anitsirk17
    Digital skills can be challenge – staff need lots of help and training – equip staff will skills through resources #mootau12
  7. KahiwaBalfour
    “Choose your own adventure”-style part in the keynote <– like. Rather than a list of points, group of images & audience chooses. #mootau12
  8. anitsirk17
    ABC Open presenting now… #abcopen_qld Engaging with communities through media and more #mootau12
  9. flairandsquare
    Solua Middleton #abcopen_qld presenting at #mootau12 > seems to me that abc is always ahead of the game!
  10. anitsirk17
    “They say a pic is worth a 1000 words, but a 1000 pics, how many words is that?” ABC Open reaching many with much #abcopen_qld #mootau12
  11. moodlechick
    #mootau12 @abc_open_qld open upskilling diverse communities so our stories can be shared AWESOME! Love open!
  12. I love seeing and hearing about the work being done by organisations with those less fortunate or this with less opportunities than the everyday person might have. Moodle is bridging the divide between all sectors and industries and creating the ultimate learning community and smaller communities. ABC Is riding the wave and bringing home the trophy.

  13. moodler
    So, swap “ABC Open” for MOOCH, and “videos” for courses and OER, and I’m starting to get good ideas…. #mootau12
  14. Eellcie
    #mootau12 taking a look at – food for thought HE as stories are a powerful tool for learning from others

Riding the Wave – Part 2

  1. These a some of my thoughts and notes, as well as the Tweets of myself and others, on the other presentations delivered on day 1 of MoodleMoot AU 2012. The nTweets may be in reverse chronological order but I hope you get much from these notes.
  2. flairandsquare
    Pause for reflection, look at activity settings and think about why they are there, come up with creative ways to use them. #mootau12
  3. This point above is a good one to consider. There is so much in the settings pages of Moodle resources and activities and academics get overwhelmed but I like the idea of looking at how they can be used.
  4. Eellcie
    OUblog gets around core blog problem and loss of journal tool @moodlechick #mootau12 but understand you prefer core moodle
  5. madradish
    I love the idea of training people in a sneaky ‘Trojan horse’ fashion so they don’t realise what they are picking up #mootau12
  6. madradish
    Using pre-workshop activities on Moodle to get people thinking and let the trainers know what attitudes to expect. This is gold! #mootau12
  7. I missed this presentation but it sounded very good.
  8. Eellcie
    Choice activity good way to lead into generalizations & peer interactions; then lead into forum ie process what you think first ! #mootau12
  9. Eellcie
    The trick is to get them to express themselves before collaborating with peers says lindy Klein @ #mootau12
  10. 1nbm
    ELOD = Engaging Learners in Online Discussion. The concept will catch on, but not sure about the acronym. #mootau12
  11. gibbisons
    Let’s position FreeMoodle in our minds as the free place to find courses – like YouTube is the place we go for movies #mootau12
  12. madradish
    Stuart Mealor points out that some Moodlers are just generally helpful. I agree, I’ve met so many here already! #mootau12
  13. And as you will see below, the Equella and Moodle 2.3 session was a huge hit. I definitely believe there is a lot of value in Equella as a repository but my questions now are, what is the benefit in using Equella when the other plugin repositories and awesome new file dragging and dropping systems in Moodle make it so much easier to upload files?
  14. shannonej
    Moodle is for managing learning, equella is for managing the data in repositories – a marriage of relevance #mootau12
  15. What makes me assume that equella & moodle 2.3integration is very popular? #mootau12
  16. Equella and Moodle in bed together? Is this the Love Story?… #mootau12
  17. Fiona and Lyn from my institution Macquarie Univeristy gave a great presentation on Communities of Inquiry in our instance of Moodle, which we call iLearn. Great presentation ladies!
  18. Thrown in the deep end at #mootau12 – presented on CoI in the ‘big room’
  19. kerryjcom
    We are looking at using synchronous chat, audio and video – students need to interact to build sense of community #mootau12
  20. madradish
    That talk by Fiona and Lyn from Mac Uni was just fantastic. Had me jotting not just notes but ideas for things we’ll need at work #mootau12
  21. And some other great tweets from the day….
  22. NetSpot
    Guess how many countries are represented @ #mootau12?#mootau12 has delegates from 14 countries. To name but a few: South Africa, Fiji, Japan
  23. gibbisons
    #mootau12 if using a quiz activity with conditional activities and letting students change their option use ‘last attempt’ score
  24. kerryjcom
    Groups (5 in this case) to build community construct – asked to choose group, create contract, negotiate content -sounds like PBL! #mootau12
  25. kerryjcom
    Really like emphasis on asking students to back up opinion with research – I’d want them to find research pro and con #mootau12
  26. kerryjcom
    In order to support community and feel like they’re in it together, students need to feel challenged intellectually #mootau12
  27. gibbisons
    #mootau12 Conditional activities – using a quiz score to path people rather than grade them
  28. myench
    #mootau12 productive failure – students collaborate more, think more deeply when they have failed at a task. how to keep them motivated tho?
  29. Bec_Spicer
    Problem based learning design contains too much support and doesn’t result in skills/knowledge transfer #mootau12
  30. flairandsquare
    Innovative learning design in Moodle. Eamon Vale showing how simple things should be. Avoiding too much structure in Moodle. #mootau12
  31. tafe_swsi_itel
    Can skills and knowledge be learnt and transferred If you give too much support and structure to a persons learning. #mootau12
  32. Missed this presentation too but delivering eLearning to inmates in detention centres and jail is great!
  33. gibbisons
    #mootau12 e-Readers have course material, library resources & can be taken to cells BUT no 3G, Wifi, SD card slot OR removable batteries
  34. edugnome
    Speaker refuting notion of “the medium is the message.” I think he misunderstands. It’s not focused on technology, but how we interact.
  35. Bec_Spicer
    #mootau12 Full house listing to Eamon Vale talk about effective Moodle based learning design
  36. Eellcie
    Mp3 Skype recorder > free tool for windows and $20 for Mac users – handy educational tool for evidence collection #mootau12
  37. edugnome
    in eCommunities session at #mootau12 Gorgeous Moodle interface Really inspiring use-case of use for prof networking
  38. Keep watching the waves, more to come….

Riding the Wave – Part 1

  1. Now I love the beach, but if there is anything that stops me from enjoying a good swim in the ocean it is waves, I personally don’t like them much. However, this week I am quite happy to indulge and enjoy riding, surfing, and even duck-diving through the waves as I soak up the sun and enjoy MoodleMoot AU 2012. Yesterday was day one, and what a day! After 10 exciting talks I was exhausted but definitely inspired. The began with a slightly feverish Martin Dougiamas taking the stage and always delivering some awesome news on what’s to come in Moodle future versions.
  2. anitsirk17
    Moodle is about interaction & collaboration @moodler once said that “all Moodle courses should be little communities of practice” #mootau12
  3. seanjcl
    “@moodleman: Great news! The awesome #forumNG plugin to replace the dated standard #moodle forum in 2.4. #mootau12”
  4. anitsirk17
    Moodle mobile – HTML5 and PhoneGap, uses REST web services, open source, modular extensible, could be your own app on it! #mootau12
  5. anitsirk17
    Some possibilities with Moodle 2.4, completely new icon set, replaced core forum, import iCal streams, new HTML5 app #mootau12
  6. anitsirk17
    First rubrics and now marking guides for even more criteria! Frequently used comments yay!! #mootau12
  7. After this great keynote presentation I went to a series of presentations on a variety if things but a common theme for me and something I am keenly interested in because of the needs of academics at our institute is the use of forums and how best to both implement them but also grade them. I was thoroughly impressed with the two presentations I saw on new tools that will hopefully become available in the near future that assess forums easily than currently is available.

  8. anitsirk17
    Building on a foundation of engagement: participation forum… Looking forward to this #mootau12
  9. anitsirk17
    Participation forum handles the quantitative side so that teachers can focus on the quality…monitor progress, guide discussion #mootau12
  10. anitsirk17
    “Good dialogue elicits those activities that shape, elaborate, and deepen understanding” Biggs #mootau12
  11. anitsirk17
    Creating efficiencies… Automate the rating based on participation…no subjective judgement, just rating using systems #mootau12
  12. anitsirk17
    Scaled access diagram using Inspiration software… More great data on student activity #mootau12
  13. anitsirk17
    “Transaction communication is a key theoretical construct for measuring collaboration…” Interested in this… #mootau12