I’m studying a course at the moment as part of my Master of Educational Leadership program called Advance Pedagogy and it has opened up my the vault of knowledge, questions and so much more about pedagogy so I will use this page to keep exploring it but mainly to curate outlines of different types of pedagogy that researchers have developed.


Glossary of key terms and concepts

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NOTE: Each term is linked to the source site of the definition.
  • Active learning pedagogy – “Active learning methodology has become a preferred way to change the traditional teacher centred classroom into the newer student centred approach to learning. Little development, however, on the pedagogy of active learning or the assessment of student retention using active learning methodology is available in the literature.”
  • Andragogy – “Knowles’ theory of andragogy is an attempt to develop a theory specifically for adult learning. Knowles emphasises that adults are self-directed and expect to take responsibility for decisions. Adult learning programs must accommodate this fundamental aspect.”
  • Cognitive domains – “Four core cognitive domains
    1. Recent memory – ability to learn and recall new information
    2. Language – either comprehension or expression
    3. Visuospatial ability – comprehension and effective manipulation of nonverbal, graphic or geographic information
    4. Executive function – ability to plan, perform abstract reasoning, solve problems, focus despite distractions and shift focus when appropriate.”
  • Conceptual learning – “conceptual learning emphasizes the kinds of things one is able to do with the information one has acquired.”
  • Constructivism – “Constructivism is a learning theory found in psychology which explains how people might acquire knowledge and learn. It therefore has direct application to education. The theory suggests that humans construct knowledge and meaning from their experiences. Constructivism is not a specific pedagogy. Piaget’s theory of Constructivist learning has had wide ranging impact on learning theories and teaching methods in education and is an underlying theme of many education reform movements. Research support for constructivist teaching techniques has been mixed, with some research supporting these techniques and other research contradicting those results.
  • Critical pedagogy – “[Critical] pedagogy . . . signals how questions of audience, voice, power, and evaluation actively work to construct particular relations between teachers and students, institutions and society, and classrooms and communities. . . . Pedagogy in the critical sense illuminates the relationship among knowledge, authority, and power.  Giroux, 1994: 30″
  • Dialogic pedagogy – “Dialogic pedagogy is a term used by a growing number of scholars, practitioners and policy-makers to describe learning processes in which teacher and pupils critically interrogate the topic of study, express and listen to multiple voices and points of view, and create respectful and equitable classroom relations.”
  • Digital pedagogy – “The term digital pedagogy is emerging as a way of thinking and enacting the distinctive nature of teaching and learning in contemporary times.”
  • Geragogy – “refer[ing] to the need to fine-tune adult learning teaching and instructional styles to enhance the learning experiences of older adults who are generally post-work and post-family, and sometimes,  frail with intellectual limitations” (Findsen & Formosa, 2007, p.4).
  • Heutagogy – “Heutagogy is the study of self-determined learning and draws together some of the ideas presented by these various approaches to learning. It is also an attempt to challenge some ideas about teaching and learning that still prevail in teacher centred learning and the need for, as Bill Ford (1997) eloquently puts it ‘knowledge sharing’ rather than ‘knowledge hoarding’. In this respect heutagogy looks to the future in which knowing how to learn will be a fundamental skill given the pace of innovation and the changing structure of communities and workplaces.”
  • Hidden curriculum – “Draws to the idea that schools do more than simply transmit knowledge, as laid down in the official curricula. It is often used to criticize the social implications, political underpinnings, and cultural outcomes of modern educative activities. While early examinations were concerned with identifying the anti-democratic nature of schooling, later studies have taken various tones, including those concerned with socialism, capitalism, and anarchism in education.”
  • Hybrid pedagogy – “combines the strands of critical pedagogy and digital pedagogy to arrive at the best social and civil uses for technology and new media in education; avoids valorising educational technology, but seeks to interrogate and investigate technological tools to determine their most progressive applications; and, invites you to an ongoing discussion that is networked and participant-driven, to an open peer reviewed journal that is both academic and collective.”
  • Integrative learning – “Integrative learning is the process of making connections among concepts and experiences so that information and skills can be applied to novel and complex issues or challenges.”
  • Long-term memory – “A long-term memory is anything you remember that happened more than a few minutes ago. Long-term memories can last for just a few days, or for many years.”
  • Metacognition – “Metacognition refers to higher order thinking which involves active control over the cognitive processes engaged in learning. Activities such as planning how to approach a given learning task, monitoring comprehension, and evaluating progress toward the completion of a task are metacognitive in nature. Because metacognition plays a critical role in successful learning, it is important to study metacognitive activity and development to determine how students can be taught to better apply their cognitive resources through metacognitive control.  “Metacognition” is often simply defined as “thinking about thinking.””
  • Praxis – “Praxis is the process by which a theory, lesson, or skill is enacted, embodied, or realised. “Praxis” may also refer to the act of engaging, applying, exercising, realising, or practicing ideas.”
  • Productive pedagogies – “The productive pedagogies cover four broad areas of teaching and learning: intellectual quality, supportive classroom environment, recognition of difference, and connectedness. The productive pedagogies are a teacher reflection tool. They are designed for teachers to reflect on their teaching practices to ensure that ‘all students regardless of background are engaged in intellectually challenging and relevant curriculum in a supportive environment’ (Curriculum Implementation Unit 2001).”
  • Rote learning – “Rote learning is the memorisation of information based on repetition. Many times, teachers use rote learning without even realizing they do so. The two biggest examples of rote learning are the alphabet and numbers. Slightly more complicated examples include multiplication tables and spelling words. At the high school level, the elements and their chemical numbers must be memorised by rote.”
  • Scaffolding – “In education, scaffolding refers to a variety of instructional techniques used to move students progressively toward stronger understanding and, ultimately, greater independence in the learning process. The term itself offers the relevant descriptive metaphor: teachers provide successive levels of temporary support that help students reach higher levels of comprehension and skill acquisition that they would not be able to achieve without assistance.”
  • Sensory memory – “Sensory memory is the shortest-term element of memory. It is the ability to retain impressions of sensory information after the original stimuli have ended. It acts as a kind of buffer for stimuli received through the five senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, which are retained accurately, but very briefly.”
  • Short-term memory – “Short-term memory is about the same as what you notice at any given moment, which is the content of your conscious experience. It is the “smallest” part of memory, because it cannot hold much information at any one time. Its size can be estimated by measuring memory span (or span of attention or span of apprehension). This is the number of separate items or chunks that you can repeat back immediately without error. Most people can repeat 6 or 7 digits or letters perfectly almost every time, but few can consistently repeat more than 7.”
  • TPACK – “Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) attempts to identify the nature of knowledge required by teachers for technology integration in their teaching, while addressing the complex, multifaceted and situated nature of teacher knowledge. The TPACK framework extends Shulman’s idea of Pedagogical Content Knowledge.”
  • Zone of proximal development – “The Zone of Proximal Development is the distance between what the learner understands within an assigned task (can do by themselves without assistance) and the next level of learning that they can complete independently through a higher conceptual level of understanding.  The term “Zone of Proximal Development” was originally created by Vygotsky who defined scaffolding instruction as the “role of teachers and others in supporting the learner’s development and providing support structures to get to that next stage or level.”

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